Skeleton Pirate

Skeleton Pirate
Artist: LindaB


Have you experienced, or read about, negative, and even dangerous, side effects from Fosamax (alendronate), Boniva (ibandronate), Actonel (risedronate), and other bisphosphonates prescribed for osteoporosis? If you have, then rest assured there is a safe, effective treatment for this condition. Strontium, primarily in the form of strontium citrate, is taken orally once a day.

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Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Equation Predicts Vitamin D Dose Needed

A new study concluded that the recommended daily allowance for vitamin D is grossly inadequate for correcting low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in many adult patients. About 5000 IU vitamin D3/day is usually needed to correct deficiency, and the maintenance dose should be ≥2000 IU/day. The required dose may be calculated from a predictive equation. 
For the whole population, average daily dose resulting in any increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 4707 IU/day; corresponding values for ambulatory and nursing home patients were 4229 and 6103 IU/day, respectively. Significant factors affecting the change in serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, in addition to the dose administered, are (1) starting serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (2) body mass index (BMI), (3) age, and (f) serum albumin concentration. 
The following equation predicts the dose of vitamin D needed (in international units per day) to effect a given change in serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Dose = [(8.52 - Desired change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level) + (0.074 × Age) - (0.20 × BMI) + (1.74 × Albumin concentration) - (0.62 × Starting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration)]/(-0.002).

A predictive equation to guide vi... [J Am Board Fam Med. 2014 Jul-Aug] - PubMed - NCBI

Monday, July 21, 2014

More on Magnesium

Not getting enough calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and other micronutrients may play a role in the development of osteoporosis. To prevent osteoporosis, it is important to get enough calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D; to eat a well balanced diet; and to do weight bearing exercises throughout life.

It is a good idea to take a B vitamin complex, or a multivitamin containing B vitamins, because the level of vitamin B6 in the body determines how much magnesium will be absorbed into the cells.

Magnesium competes with calcium for absorption and can cause a calcium deficiency if calcium levels are already low.

Source: Magnesium | University of Maryland Medical Center

Friday, July 18, 2014


Almost half (48%) of the US population consumed less than the required amount of magnesium from food in 2005–2006. Surveys conducted over 30 years indicate rising calcium-to-magnesium food-intake ratios among adults and the elderly in the United States, excluding intake from supplements, which favor calcium over magnesium. Low magnesium intakes and blood levels have been associated with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, elevated C-reactive protein, hypertension, atherosclerotic vascular disease, sudden cardiac death, osteoporosis, migraine headache, asthma, and colon cancer.

Monday, July 7, 2014

Prevalence and Determinants of Osteoporosis in Patients With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

We analyze osteoporosis prevalence and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes.  Three hundred and ninety-eight consecutive diabetic patients from a single outpatient clinic received a standardized questionnaire on osteoporosis risk factors and were evaluated for diabetes-related complications, HbA1c levels, and lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD. Of these, 139 (71 men, 68 women) type 1 and 243 (115 men, 128 women) type 2 diabetes patients were included in the study. BMD (T-scores and values adjusted for age, BMI and duration of disease) was compared between patient groups and between patients with type 2 diabetes and population-based controls (255 men, 249 women).

For both genders, adjusted BMD was not different between the type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups but was higher in the type 2 group compared with controls. Osteoporosis prevalence (BMD T-score < −2.5 SD) at FN and LS was equivalent in the type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups, but lower in type 2 patients compared with controls (FN: 13.0% vs 21.2%, LS: 6.1% vs 14.9% men; FN: 21.9% vs 32.1%, LS: 9.4% vs 26.9% women). Osteoporosis prevalence was higher at FN-BMD than at LS-BMD. BMD was positively correlated with BMI and negatively correlated with age, but not correlated with diabetes-specific parameters (therapy, HbBA1c, micro- and macrovascular complications) in all subgroups. Fragility fracture prevalence was low (5.2%) and not different between diabetes groups. Fracture patients had lower BMDs compared with those without fractures; however, BMD T-score was above −2.5 SD in most patients.

Our study shows a similar risk of osteoporosis in patients with type 1 diabetes based on low BMD (T-score < −2.5 SD), which was not different from the prevalence in patients with type 2 diabetes despite them being approximately 20 years older. The FN-BMD was particularly decreased; therefore evaluation of osteoporosis risk in younger patients with type 1 diabetes should include both spinal and FN-BMD-measurements.

We found increased LS-BMD and FN-BMD in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with a non-diabetic, population-based control group. There was a trend for lower BMD in diabetic patients (type 1 and 2) with osteoporotic fractures compared with those without fractures; however, the fracture threshold is higher than in non-diabetic populations. Further longitudinal cohort studies are required, focusing on the risk of fractures and changes in bone metabolism in patients with diabetes.

BMD measurements and the evaluation of BMD-independent risk factors for fractures should be included in the routine management of patients with diabetes mellitus because the prediction of osteoporosis solely by clinical diabetes-specific parameters was not possible. The evidence suggests that osteoporosis, and related fractures, is a clinically significant and commonly underestimated problem in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Friday, July 4, 2014

Monitoring Bone Strontium Intake in Females Taking Strontium Citrate

Ten female volunteers were recruited to have their bone strontium (Sr) levels measured as they self-supplemented with Sr supplements of their choice. Nine of the ten had been diagnosed with osteopenia and/or osteoporosis. Non-invasive bone Sr measurements were performed using an in vivo x-ray fluorescence (IVXRF) I-125 based system. Thirty minute measurements were taken at the finger and ankle, representing primarily cortical and trabecular bone, respectively.

Baseline readings, representing natural bone Sr levels were acquired since all volunteers had no previous intake of Sr based supplements or medications. Once Sr supplements were started, a 24 hour reading was taken, followed by frequent measurements ranging from weekly, biweekly to monthly. The longest volunteer participation was 1535 days (4.2 years).

The mean baseline Sr signal observed for the group was 0.42 ± 0.13 and 0.39 ± 0.07 for the finger and ankle, respectively. After 24 hours, the mean Sr signal rose to 1.43 ± 1.12 and 1.17 ± 0.51, for the finger and ankle, respectively, representing a statistically significant increase. Bone Sr levels continued to increase throughout the length of the study. However, the Sr signal varied widely between the individuals. After three years, the highest Sr signal observed was 28.15 ± 0.86 for the finger and 26.47 ± 1.22 for the ankle in one volunteer compared to 3.15 ± 0.15 and 4.46 ± 0.36, for the finger and ankle, respectively, in another. Furthermore, while it was previously reported by our group, that finger bone Sr levels may plateau within two years, these results suggest otherwise, indicating that bone Sr levels will continue to rise at both bone sites even after 4 years of Sr intake.

The most important points of this study are as follows:
  • The bone Sr signal varies widely between subjects but follows a similar pattern.
  • Results suggest bone Sr levels won't plateau as long as one supplements with Sr.
  • This diagnostic tool is satisfactory for monitoring bone Sr levels over time.

Wandering Skeleton

Wandering Skeleton
Artist: Joel Hoekstra

Osteoporotic Bone

Osteoporotic Bone

How Strontium Builds Bones

Strontium is a mineral that tends to accumulate in bone. Studies have shown that oral doses of strontium are a safe and effective way to prevent and reverse osteoporosis. Doses of 680 mg per day appear to be optimal. See my "For More Information About Strontium" links section.

Osteoporosis is caused by changes in bone production. In healthy young bones there is a constant cycle of new bone growth and bone removal. With age, more bone is removed and less new bone is produced. The bones become less dense and thus more fragile.

Scientists believe that strontium works in two ways. It may stimulate the replication of pre-osteoblasts, leading to an increase in osteoblasts (cells that build bone). Strontium also directly inhibits the activity of osteoclasts (cells that break down bone). The result is stronger bones.

When taking strontium, be sure to take 1200 mg calcium, 1000 IU vitamin D3, and 500 mg magnesium daily. It is best to take strontium late at night on an empty stomach. Calcium and strontium may compete with each other for absorption if taken together.